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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


With six, seven-point semantic differentials, the scale measures the apparent regulatory orientation of a charitable organization, ranging from a promotion focus to a prevention focus.

The seven-point Likert-type scale measures a consumer’s opposing motivations with respect to a particular retail store, such that he/she simultaneously wants to be in the environment but also leave it.

With thirteen items, the scale measures a person’s motivation to seek situations and activities that are emotionally stimulating for self and others.

This scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person's goals relate to aspirations and accomplishments. Westjohn et al. (2009) used two somewhat different four item versions (explained in the Origin section) while Arnold and Reynolds (2009) used a five item version.  With both sets of authors, a five-point response format was used.

The scale uses six statements to measure a person's chronic tendency to use an approach strategy to attain goals. The emphasis is on pursuing desirable ends rather than avoiding undesirable ones.

The scale is purported to measure a person's disposition and/or capacity toward transforming intentions into behavior-related decisions. The measure is composed of 20 forced choice items, with one alternative in each of the 20 items that reflects a "state" orientation and another alternative that reflects an "action" orientation. A state orientation is a mode of control similar to wishful thinking, in which a behavior is desired but little action is taken to make it happen. In contrast, with an action orientation, a person engages in tasks that bring about the desired behavior. Finally, half of the items (1-10) assess cognitive manifestations of action and state orientations, and the other half (11-20) assess behavioral manifestations.