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Scale Reviews

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The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensable in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University


With six, seven-point semantic differentials, the scale measures the apparent regulatory orientation of a charitable organization, ranging from a promotion focus to a prevention focus.

The seven-point Likert-type scale measures a consumer’s opposing motivations with respect to a particular retail store, such that he/she simultaneously wants to be in the environment but also leave it.

With thirteen items, the scale measures a person’s motivation to seek situations and activities that are emotionally stimulating for self and others.

This scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person's goals relate to aspirations and accomplishments. Westjohn et al. (2009) used two somewhat different four item versions (explained in the Origin section) while Arnold and Reynolds (2009) used a five item version.  With both sets of authors, a five-point response format was used.

The scale uses six statements to measure a person's chronic tendency to use an approach strategy to attain goals. The emphasis is on pursuing desirable ends rather than avoiding undesirable ones.

The scale is purported to measure a person's disposition and/or capacity toward transforming intentions into behavior-related decisions. The measure is composed of 20 forced choice items, with one alternative in each of the 20 items that reflects a "state" orientation and another alternative that reflects an "action" orientation. A state orientation is a mode of control similar to wishful thinking, in which a behavior is desired but little action is taken to make it happen. In contrast, with an action orientation, a person engages in tasks that bring about the desired behavior. Finally, half of the items (1-10) assess cognitive manifestations of action and state orientations, and the other half (11-20) assess behavioral manifestations.