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Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The degree to which a person attributes success to his/her own efforts versus fate or other forces is measured in this scale with ten forced-choice items. The Valecha (1972) version of the scale asks respondents not only to choose between items in each pair but also to indicate how close the choice is to their own true opinions.

The scale is composed of three statements measuring the extent to which a person believes a decision that has been made makes sense and is easy to support.

The scale is composed of three Likert-type statements assessing how upset a consumer says he/she would be if it turned out that a poor brand decision was made. This scale appears to relate to the consequences component of risk and, in particular, to the type of consequence called a psychological loss (e.g., Cox 1967).

The scale has three Likert-type statements that are used to assess the extent to which a consumer expresses interest in a certain brand.

The scale has three Likert-type statements that measure a consumer's level of interest in a product category and the stores that carry it, particularly the stores specializing in that product category.

The scale is composed of four Likert-type statements assessing the degree of difficulty a consumer has in selecting a brand from among the alternative brands in a certain product category. This scale appears to relate to the uncertainty component of risk (e.g., Bauer 1960). Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003) referred to this scale as the mispurchase dimension of the CIP (see Origin below).

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent that a consumer expresses pleasure in buying and owning a brand. The scale was labeled as the Hedonic dimension of the CIP (see Origin below) by Voss, Spangenberg, and Grohmann (2003).

The six item, seven-point Likert-type scale is intended to measure the importance of politics to the respondent and its centrality in his/her life.

The personal relevance of a product and a consumer's interest in the product is measured in this scale with three, five-point Likert-type items.

This semantic differential scale measures the temporary (rather than enduring and/or intrinsic) relevance of an object to a person. Whereas enduring involvement is ongoing and is probably related to a product class, situational involvement is a passing motivation. The scale can be easily customized for measuring involvement with such things a particular ad a person has been exposed to or the amount of involvement in a certain purchase decision.