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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale measures a person's attitude about the trustworthiness and expertise of a company. The versions of the scale by Keller and Aaker (1992) and Niedrich and Swain (2003) were composed of six semantic differentials while a different configuration was used by Gürhan-Canli and Batra (2004) and just focused on trustworthiness.

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a consumer believes that a good or service is free from effort when being used. Meuter et al. (2005) referred to this scale as complexity because they were studying the five key characteristics thought to influence adoption of innovations (Rogers 2003).

The eight item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree of confidence and trust a person has in politicians and the government.

The scale is composed of five statements that measure the degree to which a person expresses the importance of his/her beliefs and behavior being in agreement and not contradicting.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the extent to which a person views the situation in which a product is normally used to be either more pleasure-related (hedonic) in nature or more functional (utilitarian).

The degree of fit a person believes there to be between two objects is measured in this scale with three, seven-point semantic-differentials.

The scale is composed of five, five-point Likert-type statements that measure how essential a consumer believes a computer to be in his/her home.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to assess how well two products are viewed as going together, particularly in their usage.

The scale is composed of nine opposing phrases with a six-point response format that attempt to measure the degree of difficulty a person believes he/she would experience in making a particular choice. Since the items are stated hypothetically, the scale is not exactly a measure of post-purchase dissonance. The scale was called value conflict by Burroughs and Rindfleisch (2002) but the items seem to be general enough for use in a variety of situations where the researcher is concerned about how much conflict consumers imagine there would be in making a particular decision.

Five, five-point Likert-type statements are used to assess the degree to which a consumer believes that a computer has changed key aspects of his/her life, particularly in the home.