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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


How much a person experiences positive feelings due to an unexpected event involving products received from a company is measured with four, seven-point items.

The three items composing this scale measure a person’s belief that a particular start-up company has a passion for its product but has difficulties to overcome if it is to succeed.

With four, seven-point Likert-items, the scale measures how much a customer believes that the particular set of products sent to him/her by a company was a meaningful experience.

Three items are used to measure the extent to which a consumer’s reason for buying a particular product is due to the desire to help support equality among companies in the marketplace.  The items emphasize equality of opportunity among companies rather than equality of capabilities or results.

How much a reported issue is believed to be a major problem is measured with three, seven-point semantic-differentials.

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures how much a person believes a particular company has shown concern and remorse for an infraction in which it was involved.

The degree to which a person believes that a particular company deserves to be punished is measured with four items.  The items themselves do not indicate why the company should be punished.

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the extent to which a customer wants to express his/her frustration and feelings about a particular company.

How much a customer avoids telling companies and brands what they are doing wrong is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person’s attitude regarding the help given by a particular company to its customers, especially with respect to determining customers’ needs and having their best interests in mind, are measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.