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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

differentiation

The extent to which a consumer believes that the quality and performance of options within a product category differs a lot is measured with seven, seven-point Likert-type items.  A two-item version is discussed as well.

How much a person feels that he/she is different from other people is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

How much a person reports feeling different from others, even feeling like an outcast at times, is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s attitude regarding how much consumers differ in what they want from a product in a certain category.  In other words, do consumers believe that people vary in their beliefs about what makes a product good or bad?

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure how much a person believes an object or experience is different from others he/she has had.

The extent to which people experience a feeling that they belong to a different culture than those around them is measured with three, seven-point items.

The scale has five, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person believes a particular advertisement contains elements that are novel or unusual and yet artistically arranged.

A person’s belief that a product would help give him/her a distinctive image is measured using three, five-point Likert-type items.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure a person’s judgement of the degree of variation there is among the options in an assortment of some object.

A person’s desire to be distinct from others and to do things that make one’s self different is measured with three, nine-point items.