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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

differentiation

Three, seven-point Likert-type items measure how different the design of an object is viewed as being from the norm.

A person’s belief that a particular advertisement is different from others to which he/she knows of is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  The statements are general and do not indicate how the ad is different.

The extent to which a person views a particular brand as being unique and different from other brands in a product category is measured in this scale with three, five-point Likert-type items.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that a sensory experience with a product from a category would provide him/her with a better understanding of the different types within the category.  To be clear, this scale focuses on the differences between product types across a category (breadth) rather than the similarity within one type of product (depth).

The degree to which a consumer believes a particular product has components that are tightly coupled (integration) rather than loosely coupled (combination) is measured with four, seven-point items.  More tightly coupled systems need specific components in order to operate properly and offer limited choice of components from different suppliers.  In contrast, loose couplings offer greater freedom to mix components from different suppliers. 

The degree to which a consumer actively rejects the perceived domestic consumer culture and distances him/herself from it is measured in the scale using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a citizen of a country does not identify with the majority nationality group and, instead, accepts an oppositional identity.

The extent to which a person desires a unique identity, distinct from others, is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The purpose of this three item, seven-point scale is to measure the degree to which a person noticed there being differences among alternatives he/she was exposed to. The scale was called familiarity by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that a particular brand is different from other brands. Zhou and Nakamoto (2007) referred to the scale as perceived differentiation.