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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

difficulty

The scale has five, seven-point items that measure how much a person believes there are hardships he/she must overcome that were bought on by an unspecified “external force.”

Six, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person is easily able to imagine how furniture would look in a dwelling (house or apartment).

With four items, the scale measures the extent to which a person believes that his/her decisions involving a particular domain of information are made well and easy to make. 

A person’s belief that he/she is supported emotionally and physically in good times and bad is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  The source of the support is not stated in the items.

How complex and time-consuming a task is considered to be is measured with three, seven-point Likert items.

With three, seven-point items, the scale measures how difficult a person believes it would be for him/her to make a particular choice.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a shopper believes that a store’s layout and arrangement of shelves make it difficult to find desired products.

The degree of difficulty a person expresses in choosing one brand from among several in a product category is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

A person’s beliefs about the degree to which he/she is prone to changing attitudes or having them changed is measured with sixteen, seven-point Likert-type items. 

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how easy and understandable a person believes a particular in-store shopping technology would be to use.  As currently phrased, the items are stated hypothetically because the respondent has only read about the technology.  The sentences could be easily changed to measure a shopper’s actual experience with the technology.