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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensable in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

discrimination

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure the belief that wealthier customers are given preferential treatment by companies and their salespeople.

The extent to which a person believes that others view him/her as socially inferior is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's belief that an advertiser created a particular ad and aimed it at people like him/her is measured with three items.

Nine, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person's belief that he/she has had to struggle more so than others to succeed in life.

The scale assesses the degree to which a person believes another person's view of something is not true for some reason such as bias, ignorance, or jealousy.  Five, seven-point uni-polar items compose the scale. 

The scale is composed of nine, five-point items that are intended to measure the degree to which a consumer has an aversion towards the products produced by members of particular minority group and/or their businesses. 

The scale is composed of four items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person expresses a preference for products produced in his/her country by a particular ethnic group, probably the dominant one, rather than products that were produced domestically but by another ethnic group, probably a minority.

The scale is composed of three items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person expresses beliefs about the negative effects a particular ethnic group (probably a minority) is having on another group (probably the country's ethnic majority).

This 23-item, five-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a consumer believes that those who use a discount are devalued and discriminated against by store employees, other customers, and others in the users' shopping party.