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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

embarrassment

The belief that responding to an advertisement would require the disclosure of one's private information is measured with three, seven-point items.

How much a particular product is considered to be private and something that would not be discussed with a stranger is measured with five, seven-point items.

Ten Likert-type items measure how much a person has the tendency to keep secrets about him/herself due to the information being considered embarrassing or distressing.

Containing four, five-point statements, the scale measures a person's hesitancy to reveal something about a particular experience because of the belief it was a private matter.

The scale measures how much a consumer believes that it is awkward and uncomfortable to purchase a particular product when the behavior can be observed by others.  Based on the items, some of the embarrassment comes from the product itself while some is due to other people witnessing the purchase.  A five- and an eight-item version are described.

With five, seven-point items, the scale measures a person’s motivation to hide his/her socially-relevant mistakes and weaknesses.

The scale uses three, seven-point items to measure a person’s belief that an entity (such as a company or person) has responded to his/her idea sharing such that it negatively affected one’s social value.

The degree to which a person believes that he/she would feel uncomfortable if seen purchasing a particular product is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure one's belief that he/she was being observed in a particular situation.

The general level of discomfort a person reports feeling in the presence of others is measured with six statements.