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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


How much a person is looking forward to and excited about an upcoming holiday is measured with three questions.

Composed of eight, nine-point Likert items, the scale measures a person’s belief that people in his/her society should follow the social norms and, if they behave inappropriately, others should strongly disapprove.

How a consumer expects to feel after using a particular product is measured with eight, seven-point uni-polar items.

Composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures a person’s expected embarrassment if a particular group is joined and members become aware of his/her attribute that is stigmatized.    

Because of a personal attribute one has, this three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a person’s expectation that it could be beneficial to share insights with others in a particular context.  The scale may be most relevant if the characteristic is something that is stigmatized, e.g., weight, addiction, criminal activity.    

Composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes he/she deserves more than others because of being special and not due to effort or skill.

The importance a person places on instructions and procedures to guide his/her expectations, particularly in a work context, is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items. 

The scale has six, seven-point unipolar items that measure how much a person believes that referring someone for something in particular (not explicitly stated in the scale) would make him/her feel bad about it.  Because the object of the referral is not stated in the items nor the scale stem, the measure is flexible for use in a variety of contexts. 

Using nine, seven-point unipolar items, the scale measures how much a friend is expected to have a positive reaction upon hearing that a person has recommended him/her for something.  The person filling out the scale is the recommender and is a friend of the one being referred.  What the friend is being recommended for is not stated in the items themselves, which makes the scale useful in a variety of contexts. 

Seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s belief that a particular organization expects something in return from people when it gives something to them (quid pro quo).  Two versions of the scale are described.