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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The belief that fans of a particular sports team in a geographic area, such as a city, support the team and are different from the “average citizen” is measured with five, seven-point items.

The desire to fit in with and be part of a particular group of fans is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

The extent to which a person says he/she will be excited about a particular sports team beating another team it is playing against and the likelihood he/she will engage in behaviors to express support for the team during the event is measured with four, nine-point items.  The scale items are flexible for sporting events which have two teams playing against each other or when the researcher’s desire is to focus only on two of several teams in a multi-team event such as the Olympics.

The level of a person’s enjoyment of a celebrity and identification with him/her is measured with three, six-point Likert-type items.

The scale uses eight, seven-point Likert-type items to measure a fan’s attitude about a particular sports team.  The emphasis is on the team’s high standards and its efforts to please loyal fans.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure how much emotional distress a person says would be experienced if separated from a particular object. The object could be a person, place, or thing; in the case of the studies by Thomson (2006), the object was "human brands" such as celebrities and other well-known people.

The scale has three Likert-type statements that are used to assess the extent to which a consumer expresses interest in a certain brand.

Three, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a consumer has experienced positive relationships with other consumers due to their mutual ownership of a certain branded product. The scale was referred to as owner-owners relationship by McAlexander, Schouten, and Koenig (2002).

A consumer's attitude toward a certain product is assessed with three, five-point Likert-type statements. The emphasis of the scale is on the affective component of one's an attitude. The scale was referred to as owner-product relationship by McAlexander, Schouten, and Koenig (2002).

The scale is composed of four, seven-point semantic differentials that measure the attitude of a sports team fan about other fans' approval of his/her purchase of a team sponsor's products.