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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

financial

The scale uses three, seven-point items to measure the level of understanding a person believes he/she has of annuities.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure the belief that wealthier customers are given preferential treatment by companies and their salespeople.

Six, yes/no items are used to measure how much a person indicates that he/she has engaged in financially related activities that are generally considered positive, e.g., put aside some money for financial emergencies.

With three questions and a seven-point response format, the scale measures how important it was to increase gains when making a particular financial decision.

How important it was to a person to avoid potential losses when making a particular financial decision is measured with three questions and a seven-point response format.

Thirteen items are used to measure the level of objective knowledge a person has of basic financial concepts.  An eight-item version is also discussed.

Four, 100-point items measure a person’s satisfaction with his/her current and future financial well-being.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials measure the degree to which a person feels dissatisfied with his/her financial situation, especially when compared to the situations experienced by peers.

How a person believes his/her capability and confidence compare to other people investing in the stock market is measured with three, seven-point items.

Using three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s inclination to refrain from investing in the stock market because of the risks involved.