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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

friendly

How much a person describes another person as a friend who is likable and fun to be around is measured with four, five-point Likert-type items.

Using nine-point unipolar items, the scale measures the degree to which a company is considered to be moral, kind, and helpful in its interactions with customers.  Two versions of the scale are described: one with three items and another with ten.

Three, nine-point unipolar items measure the extent to which a company or set of companies is viewed as lacking friendliness and warmth in its interactions with customers.

The scale has six items that measure the degree to which a consumer believes a particular salesperson with whom he/she has interacted tried to build a rapport and an emotional connection between them prior to or along with discussion of sales issues.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items measure how much a person describes him/herself as talkative and gregarious.

How much a person is sociable and talkative is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure whether a customer has more of a communal relationship or an exchange relationship with a business or employee.  In the scale, a communal relationship is informal and like a family whereas an exchange relationship is formal and purely transactional.

How kind and friendly something appears to be is measured with seven-point items.  Three similar versions are described and, depending upon the version, the scales seem to be flexible for use with a variety of objects such as people, animals, and brands.

The degree to which something is viewed as sincere, friendly, and good-natured is measured with six, seven-point uni-polar items.  The scale is general in the sense that it has been used with respect to both individuals and organizations.

Using a Likert-type response format, the scale measures the degree to which a person thinks that relevant others believe customers ought to be friendly to employees, especially to those at stores who provide service.  Items for both a four-item and a two-item version are described.