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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

identification

The belief that fans of a particular sports team in a geographic area, such as a city, support the team and are different from the “average citizen” is measured with five, seven-point items.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how much a person feels close and connected to a particular company.

The desire to fit in with and be part of a particular group of fans is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

Three, seven-point items measure the similarity between a consumer’s self-image and his/her idea of a “typical” user of a brand.

Three, seven-point items measure how much a consumer identifies with a brand and feels connected to it.

The scale has six items that measure the degree to which a consumer believes a particular salesperson with whom he/she has interacted tried to build a rapport and an emotional connection between them prior to or along with discussion of sales issues.

How much a person identifies with and feels close to members of a particular community is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items measure the degree to which a person believes his/her language skills were the reason why he/her was treated unjustly by someone else.

Using three Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a person is involved in a particular hobby and identifies with it, e.g., driving, baking, fishing.

How much a person reports feeling different from others, even feeling like an outcast at times, is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.