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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures whether a person has a habitual mental attitude in which self-distinctiveness is emphasized or, at the other extreme, an integration mindset in which assimilation and cooperation are emphasized.

The scale uses seven, five-point items to measure the willingness and tendency of a member of a customer ideation group to create product ideas by integrating and combining his/her own thoughts with those of others in the group.

Four, seven-point items are used to measure how much a person believes a particular product part is an integral feature of a product.  To be clear, the scale measures how much a component is considered to be a defining feature of the product rather than how important the component is to a consumer’s decision.

How integral a particular product part is viewed as being to a product is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, the scale does not measure how important a component is to a consumer’s decision but rather how much a component is considered to be a defining feature of the object.

The degree to which a consumer believes a particular product has components that are tightly coupled (integration) rather than loosely coupled (combination) is measured with four, seven-point items.  More tightly coupled systems need specific components in order to operate properly and offer limited choice of components from different suppliers.  In contrast, loose couplings offer greater freedom to mix components from different suppliers. 

The coherence of a brand's meaning and one's ease in understanding it is measured in this scale using five, seven-point items.  The scale was referred to as perceived understanding by Lee and Shavitt (2009).

A person's belief that a certain business offers goods, services, and helpful purchase information that are not readily available elsewhere is measured using eight, seven-point Likert-type statements. Although the scale was developed for use with an online store, it appears to be amenable for use with brick-and-mortar retailers as well if they have websites.