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intrusive

Using three, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much one customer believes another customer has engaged in behavior which disrespected one’s personal space and signaled it was his/her own.

The scale uses three, five-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a customer believes that employees of a business engaged in behaviors that infringed on one’s space and activities in the establishment.

The scale has seven, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a consumer is motivated to resist a specific object, such as an ad, that is believed to have been forced upon him/her.  The emphasis is on the impropriety of the object rather than how much it limits one’s decision-making freedom.

The scale measures the the extent to which a person perceives that an advertisement has interfered with his/her processing of the non-advertising content of a medium, e.g., watching a TV program, surfing the web, reading articles in a magazine. Although the construct is theorized to lead to negative affective reactions (irritation) and behavioral responses (avoidance), it is viewed as distinct from them.

The scale is composed of four, five-point uni-polar items that are used to measure a person's beliefs regarding the way an advertisement is visually presented with an emphasis on how irritating it is. The study by Burns and Lutz (2006) focused on the types of ad formats used online, e.g., banners, pop-ups, skyscrapers, interstitials. A five-point Likert-type response format was used with the items.