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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

knowledge

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person is sure that, during a recent purchase experience, the product that was selected met his/her needs.

Three, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that a product will function well and as it is intended to.

Three items with a seven-point Likert-type response format are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person reports feeling in control of some object or activity.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a consumer is familiar with the quality of other service providers and has, in fact, tried some other providers over time. This scale was called alternative experience by Burnham, Frels, and Mahajan (2003) to distinguish it from the other scale of switching experience they used. That one appears to tap into the same construct as this one except that it emphasizes the quantity of switching a bit more, especially in the last two years.

The level of pleasure a consumer expresses having with shopping is measured in this seven, seven-point Likert-type scale. The activities are viewed as more than just a necessary means to an end but as something enjoyable in themselves including focused and nonfocused search aspects.

The scale is composed of three semantic differentials measuring the degree to which a person feels certain about something. As used by Urbany et al. (1997), the confidence respondents had in their judgments of product quality was being measured. Similarly, Zhang and Budda (1999) examined the confidence respondents had in their perceptions of product performance. Health risk estimates were the focus of the measure as used by Keller, Lipkus, and Rimer (2002).

Six Likert-type statements are used to measure one's familiarity with the persuasion tactics used by marketers to sell products and having confidence in his/her ability to deal with those tactics.

The scale has three, five-point items that are supposed to measure the probability that a product will not perform as expected for reasons that could be viewed as "personal." (See Origin below for more details.) If one accepts the two component model of perceived risk (e.g., Bauer 1960; Cox 1967), then this scale most heavily taps into the uncertainty component as opposed to the consequences component.

Three, five-point statements are used to measure the probability that a specified perishable food item found in a grocery store will decrease in quality as it nears its printed expiration date. If one accepts the two component view of perceived risk (e.g., Bauer 1960; Cox 1967), then this scale most heavily taps into the uncertainty component as opposed to the consequences component.

A person's belief that a certain business offers goods, services, and helpful purchase information that are not readily available elsewhere is measured using eight, seven-point Likert-type statements. Although the scale was developed for use with an online store, it appears to be amenable for use with brick-and-mortar retailers as well if they have websites.