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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

knowledge

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a consumer's perceived knowledge of brands in a specified product category as well as the confidence to make purchase decisions and give advice to others about the product class.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure a consumer's familiarity with and interest in a specified food product category. Cole and Balasubramanian (1993) studied breakfast cereal.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel in control in a particular setting and be able to influence outcomes.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to assess the ease of using a computer to perform some task that a person reports experiencing.

This three-item, seven-point scale is intended to measure the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to reflect his/her evaluation of a soft drink accurately.

A three-item, eleven-point scale is used to provide an idea about the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to accurately reflect his/her evaluation of a brand.

This four-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the degree to which people say they are confident in their ability to understand and use specified nutritional information on food packaging.

The scale measures the degree to which a person believes that a website enables the user to know where he/she is, go where he/she wants to go, and do what he/she wants to accomplish at the site.

This scale is composed of nine-point Likert-type items intended to measure the degree to which a person desires more information about a brand because of a lack of knowledge about what it is like. The scale was referred to as perceived risk by Erdem and Swait (2004) and Erdem, Swait, and Valenzuela (2006).

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the confidence a consumer expresses in knowing how to properly use an object. The objects examined by Meuter et al. (2005) were two kinds of self-service technologies. In the context of co-production, the scale has been viewed as a measure of role clarity (Meuter et al. 2005; Dong, Evans, and Zou 2008).