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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

leadership

The scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how much a person believes that employees at lower levels of an organization should not have much power and should follow those at higher levels in order for the organization to be successful.

This measure uses six, nine-point items to assess the extent to which a person believes that a company or set of companies have leadership in the marketplace and can influence suppliers, competitors, and consumers.

With five, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale is intended to measure a person’s motivation to be in control of people and decisions.

The belief in one’s ability to influence another person or group is measured with eight statements. To be clear, the scale does not explicitly measure one’s use of power but rather the confidence that one has it and can use it.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures the leadership of a particular company's chief executive office, particularly as it pertains to managing the development of innovative products. 

The effectiveness and leadership of a state governor is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items. 

The degree to which a person views a certain brand as being a leader and innovative is measured in this scale with three, nine-point unipolar items.

Three, seven-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person is characterized by a personality-type factor having to do with productivity and intelligence.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a brand is viewed as being a leading brand among those available in the market.

This Likert-type scale measures the perception of one's self as a leader and having confidence. A four-item version of this scale was used by Davis and Rubin (1983) and referred to as self-confidence/leadership. A shorter, three-item version was utilized by Lumpkin and Hunt (1989).