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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The belief that a salesperson was “redirecting” one’s attention by pushing him/her to purchase a product other than the intended one is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

Four, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to measure how much a person believes some entity is honest and not manipulative.  The focus of the measure is commonly a person, but the scale is general enough to be used with other entities such as a company, an ad, or a website. 

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a customer believes a salesperson was using high-pressure sales tactics and pushing him/her to make a decision prematurely.

The extent of a person's negative beliefs regarding "advergames" made for children is measured with six Likert-type items.  (Advergames are custom-made for a good or service in order to entertain potential consumers as well as promote the brand.)

This is a three-item, seven-point Likert-like scale measuring how much attention is paid to a certain ad based mostly on the consumer's purchasing considerations and expressed need for the advertised item.

This is a four-item, seven-point Likert-like scale that measures how much effort a person devoted to evaluating the advertised brand.

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a person's belief that an advertisement was unacceptably persuasive.

This four item, seven point scale is intended to measure the perceived cognitive effort involved in answering a question. The scale was referred to by a variety of names: the effort index by Menon, Raghubir, and Schwarz (1995), the accessibility manipulation by Raghubir and Menon (1998), the cognitive effort index by Menon, Block, and Ramanathan (2002), and the difficulty index by Menon and Raghubir (2003).

Twenty, seven-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person expresses tendencies to control others through aggressive, manipulative, and even devious means in order to achieve personal or organizational objectives. In marketing research, the scale has mostly been used with marketing professionals in the U.S. (e.g., Ho et al. 1997; Hunt and Chonko 1984). See Wirtz and Kum (2004) for a use of the scale with a mixture of Singaporean workers, professionals, and ultimate consumers.

The scale is composed of three statements measuring how much the respondent reports thinking about personally using a product while watching a commercial in which the product is featured, particularly as it pertains to integrating the product into the daily routine.