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norms

The degree to which a person featured in an advertisement behaves in a way that is consistent with the social norms of the country in which the ad is run is measured with four items.

The degree to which a person believes there are clear social norms that people should comply with in his/her country is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure how much a person believes there are clear social norms and that he/she should comply with them.

Using a Likert-type response format, the scale measures the degree to which a person thinks that relevant others believe customers ought to be friendly to employees, especially to those at stores who provide service.  Items for both a four-item and a two-item version are described.

How much a customer believes that other people would approve if he/her acted unfriendly to a particular employee is measured by the scale.  The scale is useful when it is assumed that the actions of an employee could motivate customers to be unfriendly.  Items for both an eight-item and a five-item version are described.

With six, nine-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s general attitude that society should have well-defined rules (social norms and laws) and that punishment is appropriate when rules are not adhered to.  WARNING: The article in which this scale was reported has been retracted by the second author due to anomilies in the data and analyses [Journal of Consumer Research (2020), 47 (4), 632]. The extent to which the anomilies affected this scale is unknown.

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person expresses surprise in the behavior of the other party of a relationship in a particular situation.  The circumstances surrounding the event in which the behavior occurred are not stated in the items themselves but should be made clear to respondents in the context of the study or the instructions.

The scale uses six statements to assess how much a person believes someone or something is true to itself and does not follow social conventions.  As written, the items are best suited for describing others but with minor editing, the scale could be used to describe the respondent's perceived level of autonomy.

Six, five-point Likert-type items measure a person’s belief that societal rules and norms are overly restrictive and limit person freedom too much.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items measure to what degree a person believes that a social standard of a particular group of people makes sense and is of benefit to them.  The norm is not stated in the items themselves and must be provided to participants some way.