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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The extent to which a consumer believes that the quality and performance of options within a product category differs a lot is measured with seven, seven-point Likert-type items.  A two-item version is discussed as well.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a consumer’s general belief that brand name products in a certain product category are essentially the same as those brands owned by the store.  (How they are viewed as “the same” is not stated in the items.)

The extent to which a person, such as a viewer or consumer, believes that he/she is similar to the person who created a particular ad is measured using three, seven-point items.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that a particular brand is different from other brands. Zhou and Nakamoto (2007) referred to the scale as perceived differentiation.

The four, five-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person believes the services provided by competing providers in an industry vary a lot in their quality. If reversed from the way the items are shown being scored (below), the scale could be considered a measure of parity.

Four seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer believes there are acceptable alternative sources of a product. Although the scale was developed for use with a service provider it would appear to be amenable for use with sellers of physical goods as well. The measure was called attractiveness of alternatives by Jones, Mothersbaugh, and Beatty (2000).