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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The scale is composed of three semantic differentials that are intended to measure a person's sense of the distance from one object to another. In the studies by Argo, Dahl, and Manchanda (2005) as well as Martin (2012), the scale was used to measure how participants viewed the distance of other shoppers to themselves.

Four, seven-point statements are used to assess the degree to which a person focuses more on the style of an ad versus the brand-related information. The phrasing of the items makes them more appropriate for print ads than for commercials.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree of focus a person has on a particular activity, as in an experiment, with the emphasis being on how much the person's attention was diverted from the task to something else.

Sixteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure the clarity of mental images a person evokes. The scale measures a person's general visual imagery ability rather than the clarity of a particular stimulus under investigation. The scale has been referred to by several users as the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (e.g., Childers 1985; Marks 1973).

The clarity of mental images a person is able to evoke is assessed using 35, seven-point, Likert-like items. A person's general ability to imagine several types of sensations is measured and is not limited to a particular sense or stimulus. It has been referred to by various names, but most of them include the original creator's name (Betts).

The scale is composed of three, nine-point Likert-type items intended to measure the degree to which a person describes a product as difficult to picture in the mind.

The three item, Likert-type scale measures the extent to which a consumer expresses a tendency to become absorbed in activity occurring within some sort of indoor environment (e.g., shopping mall) to such an extent that he/she loses track of time. The scale was called time distortion by Arnold and Reynolds (2003).

The scale is composed of four statements that are intended to measure the extent to which an ad has stimulated a person to form mental images of what was being described verbally in the ad copy. It is not clear whether the scale taps more into a person's propensity for visualization or an ad's propensity for stimulating visualization; it appears to lean more toward the latter.

Four bi-polar adjectives are used to measure the degree to which a person perceives a stimulus to have a quality characteristic of a broader class of stimuli rather than one particular stimulus. Aggarwal and Law (2005) used the scale as a manipulation check to make sure two scenarios were similar in their levels of abstraction.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point bi-polar adjectives that measure the strength with which an advertisement has evoked imagery.