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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

personality

This six item, six-point Likert-type scale measures an individual difference characteristic that varies between people by how much weight is placed on “reason” versus “feelings” when making decisions.  Three of the statements refer to financial or product choice situations while the other three items are more general.

With five, six-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person tends to process information such that it is conscious, intentional, analytic, and relatively affect free.

With seven, seven-point items, the scale is used to measure the degree to which a person is characterized by one of two trait-like “modes” of attention: focus on the immediate environment (experiencing) or stimuli-independent thought (mind wandering).

With five, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale is intended to measure a person’s motivation to be in control of people and decisions.

The degree to which a person expresses a trait-like need for power and the tendency to be controlling in social relationships is measured with six, seven-point items.

The degree to which a person believes him/herself to be in control and able to get his/her way is measured with five, ten-point Likert-type items.  The statements themselves are rather general and do not explicitly measure power as a trait or as a state.  Instructions used with the statements can help focus participants’ attention on one versus the other type of powerfulness.

Fourteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s trait-like tendency to be concerned about the needs of others as well as expecting help from them when needed.

The extent to which a person believes in one’s ability to change the self is measured with four, six-point Likert-type items.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items measure a person’s general and enduring tendency to experience feelings that are expressed in terms of optimism about the future.

With six, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s general and enduring tendency to experience feelings of closeness and trust with other people.