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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The degree to which a person believes that an employee who has provided some service did not have an appropriate demeanor is measured in this scale using three, 10-point Likert-type items.  The scale was called social failure by Chan, Wan, and Sin (2009) to emphasize the distinction they made between this type of service failure and one that was related to the something unrelated to the provider, such as the food quality of a restaurant.

Nine, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person thinks the nursing staff at a specified hospital provided high-quality attention and service during his/her stay as a patient.

The scale uses three, seven-point items to measure the degree to which a customer views an employee as an individual rather than as just an anonymous employee.

Four, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to assess a customer's attitude regarding the extent to which an interaction that occurred with an employee is typical and widespread across an organization. As used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) the interaction was negative but the items seem to be amenable for use when a positive experience has occurred. They called the scale attributions of globality.

Six items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a customer believes that a certain company, and particularly its employees, care about customers and treat them fairly.

The scale is composed of four, ten-point semantic differentials that measure the extent to which a customer believes the employees of a store or company are capable and trustworthy.

A consumer's interest in shopping at stores where he or she is known by those who work there is measured with three, six-point Likert-type statements.

Four, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a customer expresses a positive attitude about the manner in which employees of a certain business have treated him/her.

The seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure a consumer's general attitude regarding the quality of service received from a certain store with an emphasis on the manner of treatment given by the employees.

Seven, six-point items are used to measure an aspect of a person's store-related  satisfaction that focuses on various customer service attributes.