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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The belief that an employee can reward and punish other employees is measured with three, seven-point items.

The scale has four, five-point items that measure what an adolescent thinks his/her parents would do if they did not want him/her to watch television, movies, or video games that contained too much violence.  Specifically, this belief is a characterized by the parents “restricting” the time the child spends with unacceptable media content by using anger and threatening punishment.

Five, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the desire to engage in behaviors that would damage a brand as well as stores and employees that sell the product.

A person’s admission of deserving punishment and desire to punish one’s self is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

With seven items, the scale measures the extent to which a person generally believes that people get what they deserve in life because “the world” is fair.

The four statements composing the scale measure the degree to which a customer expresses irritation with employees of a retail establishment for something they have done.  A specific, offending behavior is only referred to in one item and has to do with the belief that the employees were trying to close the facility too early.

The degree to which a person experiences strong, negative affective responses to the expectation or occurrence of unpleasant events is measured with seven items.

Composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures a customer's intentional efforts to reduce the level of interaction with a business in several ways.

Four, five-point items compose the scale and measure the degree to which a customer has reacted to a service failure by considering retribution and possibly taken action against the business or its employees.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure a person's motivation to disengage from interacting with a business.  The reason for the avoidance is not stated in the scale but will need to be provided somewhere in the instrument to frame the questions for respondents.