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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person views self as an “outdoorsy” person and that affects his/her recreation as well as product choices.

This is a three-item, seven-point scale measuring the relative amount of time a person spends on achieving a healthy balance between stress and work on the one hand and rest and relaxation on the other.

Five, six-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a behavior of his/hers as not being routine, planned, or anticipated. The behavior investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the behavior was recreational shopping.

The scale is composed of five, five-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person views shopping as an essential part of his/her self-concept. The scale was referred to as Recreational Shopper Identity scale by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006). While scores on the scale were shown to be strongly associated with recreational shopping activity, the items themselves are not specific to recreational shopping.

The extent to which a person views shopping at a specific website as helping provide a sense of leaving his/her normal world for a while is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type statements. Mathwick, Malhotra, and Rigdon (2002) used the scale with reference to a catalog while Mathwick and Rigdon (2004) used it with reference to searching a website for information.

The five-item, five-point scale measures the frequency with which a person watches television as a way of mentally escaping discomforts of life such as boredom, loneliness, and other problems.

The scale is composed of three, nine-point Likert-type statements that measure the extent of a person's plans to engage in activities related to traveling to a specific vacation destination.

Five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes shopping at a certain type of store is a pleasant and likable activity to engage in.

This three-item, five point Likert-type scale measure the enjoyment a consumer expresses receiving from the shopping experience. The scale was referred to as emotional lift by O'Guinn and Faber (1989; Faber and O'Guinn 1992). It was called attitude toward shopping by Donthu and Gilliland (1996).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items intended to measure a person's interest in some specified sporting activity.