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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

sadness

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person experiences a psychological void and hollowness most likely because one’s life does not seem to have meaning or belongingness.

How much a person reports feeling emotions related to disappointment and discouragement at some point or period of time is measured with four, seven-point uni-polar items.

The extent to which a person wishes he/she did not engage in certain behaviors against a specified person or entity is measured with three items.  (Although not explicitly stated in the items, the implication is that the actions taken were negative in some way.)

With four, seven-point items, the scale measures how much a person believes that he/she will feel unhappy and powerless if there is a failure to experience what was expected with regard to a product choice decision.  The items are phrased such that the focus is on making the choice based on how the options vary on one critical product attribute.   

How positively or negatively a person feels about an object is measured with ten, five-point items.  Unlike many, if not most, measures of affect, the items in this scale are full sentences rather than semantic differentials.  The sentences are easily modified for a variety of objects.

The scale is composed of six, nine-point uni-polar items that measure one’s expressed level of unfavorable feelings.  While the scale appears to be amenable for use in a wide variety of situations, it seems to be best suited for occasions in which respondents have experienced something that did not go as well as expected.

The degree to which a person feels responsible and sorry for a particular incident is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

How a person reports feeling (affectively) is measured with six, nine-point semantic differentials.

The extent to which a person reports feeling sorry and blameworthy for something is measured with three, seven-point semantic-differentials.

Four, five-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure one’s feelings of shame and remorse.