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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


The scale uses three, seven-point Likert items to measure the clarity and detail of the memory a person has of the most recent time he/she encountered a particular type of person, object, or activity.

How satisfied a customer is with a salesperson, particularly with respect to the producs and service provided, is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A consumer’s enjoyment of negotiating prices for products, especially those that are considered expensive, is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.    

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes the price for a certain type of good or service can be negotiated downward in his/her favor. 

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how much a person is concerned that bargaining too strongly to reduce the price of product could lower the quality received in some way.  While this scale is most relevant for use with services, it might be used with goods as well.    

Four, seven-point Likert items assess the degree to which a customer believes that interaction with a particular company’s customer service does things to address an issue.  Two slightly different versions of the scale are described: one that measures pre-interaction expectations of the service and another version that measures post-interaction service. 

Three, seven-point Likert items assess how much a person believes that a particular problem or question has been sufficiently addressed.  Although not stated in the items themselves, the scale makes the most sense when a customer has communicated in some way with a company employee such a customer service representative.

How much a product is believed to be physical in nature rather than immaterial is measured with three, seven-point bi-polar adjectives.

The scale measures how much the service employees of a company are believed to be competent, polite, and helpful among other characteristics.  Two versions of the scale are described, one that has eight, eleven-point items and another with six, seven-point items.

The likelihood of a customer complaining and seeking redress from a service provider when he/she has had a dissatisfactory service experience is measured with seven, seven-point Likert-type items.  The scale is “general” in the sense that the sentences do not refer to a particular experience but rather the typical inclination when one has had a dissatisfactory encounter.