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Scale Reviews

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Saint Xavier University, Chicago


The extent to which a person feels that an object is close to one’s self rather than far away is measured using four, seven-point items.

Using eight, nine-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a person wants greater physical intimacy with a particular person, e.g., to touch, smell, see, hear.

With three, seven-point items, the scale measures a person’s tendency to notice and attend to sounds, smells, and visual aspects of his/her nearby surroundings.

The scale has ten items that measure a person’s desire to eat in response to “external” stimuli (non-hunger related), with an emphasis on exposure to the sights and smells of food.

A 35-item, seven-point Likert-like scale is used to measure the clarity of mental images a person is able to evoke. This measures a person's general ability to imagine several types of sensations and is not limited to a particular sense or stimulus. It has been referred to by various names, but most of them include the original creator's name (Betts).

This scale uses eight items and a seven-point Likert-type response format to measure a person's attitude about a food or beverage with the emphasis of the assessment being on taste and smell.

Three, nine-point items are used to measure how unpleasant a person describes the smell of some stimulus to be.

The scale has four, nine-point semantic differentials that are used to measure how stimulating a stimulus is perceived to be. The stimulus evaluated by participants in the study by Bosmans (2006) was the scent in a room.

Four, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how pleasant a stimulus is perceived to be.

Six, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure the health and cleanliness-related characteristics a person associates with those who smoke. Two versions of the scale were used. One had to do with how a person thinks that smokers are perceived by others (reference group evaluations) and another focusing on how a person thinks that smokers perceive themselves (self evaluations).