You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


How well a customer believes that a salesperson expresses him/herself is measured in this scale with three items.

Using three, seven-point Likert items, this scale measures how much a consumer believes that purchasing a particular good or service from a provider helps support that person as a member of the community.  Although this scale could be used in a variety of situations, it was made for use in peer-to-peer contexts. 

The scale has four, five-point Likert-type items that measure how much a consumer uses possessions to signal his/her ability to find better deals and products compared to other people.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items measure the helpfulness of information about previous donors’ contributions to a project.   The phrasing of the items makes the scale most appropriate for crowdfunding of a project in which potential donors are provided some information about how much other people have given already.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure a person’s belief that a request for donations from a particular organization focuses on one victim who represents a large group in order to describe the severity of a pandemic, disaster, or other adversity.

A person’s beliefs that more should be done to reduce the stigma associated with people who have a criminal background and help them make a fresh start is measured with three, seven-point Likert items.

Composed of eight, nine-point Likert items, the scale measures a person’s belief that people in his/her society should follow the social norms and, if they behave inappropriately, others should strongly disapprove.

Containing three, nine-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a consumer wants a particular product that was owned previously by other people because of the expectation of feeling an association with them. 

How much a person is experiencing negative affect due to disconnectedness from other people is measured with five, nine-point items. 

Using three, seven-point items, the scale measures the extent to which a viewer believes that a particular person in an advertisement belongs to an ethnic minority of the country.