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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

social

How much a person wants to support opinions that others do is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

Using three, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much one customer believes another customer has engaged in behavior which disrespected one’s personal space and signaled it was his/her own.

The scale has four, five-point items that measure how much a person primarily socializes with other Latinos rather than non-Latino Americans, about the same amount for both groups, or only socializes with non-Latino Americans.

Three seven-point, Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s belief that being in a particular restaurant gives him/her the feeling of being special and having more social status than in other restaurants. 

This three-item, seven-point scale measures the level of pressure felt by a person when engaged in a particular activity.  The type of pressure is not stated in the items but is implied to be social pressure, most likely coming from other people who are waiting for him/her to finish the action. 

The extent to which a person believes another individual is a peer and thinks like him/her is measured with three, 101-point items.

The degree to which a person featured in an advertisement behaves in a way that is consistent with the social norms of the country in which the ad is run is measured with four items.

How much a consumer believes a particular product will be used in situations where other people will see it is measured with three items.  A low score on the scale would imply the product will only be used in private, such as at home.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials measure the degree to which a person feels dissatisfied with his/her financial situation, especially when compared to the situations experienced by peers.

Four, seven-point items measure how much a person believes that a branded product gives owners a feeling of superiority and higher status compared to other customers who do have the product.