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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

sports

The belief that fans of a particular sports team in a geographic area, such as a city, support the team and are different from the “average citizen” is measured with five, seven-point items.

The desire to engage in outdoor sports and other activities that involve speed or danger is measured with fourteen, five-point Likert-type items.

How positive a person feels about the sponsor of an event is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  The event being sponsored is not identified in the sentences themselves which makes the scale amenable for use with a wide variety of contexts.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s belief that the way something was sponsored made him/her feel more positively towards sponsorship in general.

The scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person believes the way an event is sponsored will increase his/her interest in the event and the likelihood of attending it.

The scale has three, seven-point Likert items that measure how much a person expected to feel good if he/she scored many points in a game.

Three Likert-type items are used to measure the degree which a person believes the reason a brand sponsors something, such as a team, event, or charity, is because it is something that is expected by constituents, e.g., employees, customers, the community at large.

The degree to which a person felt involved in an activity rather than just passively observing it is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  While the scale was made for use in a product demonstration context, it appears to be amenable for use in other contexts where people can either actively participate in something or just watch.   

The likelihood that a person will engage in several behaviors that indicate loyalty to a sports team is measured using six, seven-point Likert-type items.

The extent to which a person says he/she will be excited about a particular sports team beating another team it is playing against and the likelihood he/she will engage in behaviors to express support for the team during the event is measured with four, nine-point items.  The scale items are flexible for sporting events which have two teams playing against each other or when the researcher’s desire is to focus only on two of several teams in a multi-team event such as the Olympics.