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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensable in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

tangible

The extent to which a person perceives an object to be tangible and realistic-looking is measured with three, uni-polar items.

How much an object is considered to be touchable and concrete is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

With three Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s attitude regarding the naturalness and solidness of a mediated environment that he/she has experienced. 

Using four, nine-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a consumer considers a retailer to be close and tangible rather than distant and abstract.  As an example of the construct, a retailer that only has a website would likely be viewed by consumers as more psychologically distant than a brick-and-mortar store that is physically close to them.

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person thinks a hospital, and its rooms in particular, are appealing and clean.

A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person thinks an educational institution has grounds, buildings, equipment, and professors that are neat and clean.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that something such as a good or service has a physical presence and can be accessed via the human senses. As used by Laroche et al. (2005), the items were reverse-coded so that the scale became a measure of intangibility.

Five-point statements are used to measure the amount of support a person receives (or recalls receiving) from his or her family while growing up. The items have been used as two subscales to separately measure intangible and tangible support but the items have also been used together to measure both forms of support simultaneously.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type statements measuring an aspect of service quality focused on the degree to which a customer says the provider knows that certain physical aspects of the service are important to patrons and the respondent is pleased with them.

Four, bipolar adjectives are purported to measure a person's opinion of the type of appeal being used by the source of a message, varying from emotional at one extreme to rational at the other.  It could easily be used with advertising but could also be used with appeals made by charities, speeches by politicians, sale pitches by sales people, etc.