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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


The three item scale assesses the degree to which a person views somebody or something as having made mistakes. The scale was called transgression index by Aaker, Fournier, and Brasel (2004) and used with reference to a fictitious company.

Three, four-point statements are used to assess the degree to which a consumer views the managers at a specified company as acting appropriately if/when factory closings are being considered. As used in the study by Klein, Smith, and John (2004), the items appear to be scored such that high scores suggest a person believes it would be flagrantly offensive to close factories unnecessarily.

The four item, Likert-type scale measures the credibility of a company or advertiser with an emphasis on the degree to which its claims are believed to be true.

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's attitude about a political system with an emphasis on statements reflecting distrust and lack on confidence in the system.

The scale measures a person's attitude about the trustworthiness and expertise of a company. The versions of the scale by Keller and Aaker (1992) and Niedrich and Swain (2003) were composed of six semantic differentials while a different configuration was used by Gürhan-Canli and Batra (2004) and just focused on trustworthiness.

The eight item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree of confidence and trust a person has in politicians and the government.

Four, Likert-type statements are used to measure the credibility of an advertiser/company with an emphasis on his/her experience and skill.

This semantic differential scale measures a component of source credibility relating primarily to honesty and sincerity. It has been one of the most popular scales used in scholarly advertising research. 

The following applications of the scale (or parts of it) have been made: credibility of a nutrition claim in an ad (Andrews, Netemeyer, and Burton 1998; Andrews 2001; Andrews, Burton and Netemeyer 2001; Kozup, Creyer, and Burton 2003); credibility of merchant supplied price information (Lichtenstein and Bearden 1989); credibility of a store's ad (Bobinski, Cox, and Cox 1996); the trustworthiness of a company (Goldsmith, Lafferty and Newell 2001; MacKenzie and Lutz 1989); a website's reputation (Shamdasani, Stanaland, and Tan 2001); the credibility of a website's sponsor (Rifon et al. 2004); the trustworthiness of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001); trustworthiness of noncelebrity product endorsers (Moore, Mowen, and Reardon 1994); and, credibility of celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000; Tripp, Jensen, and Carlson 1994).

A customer's attitude regarding some aspects of an airline's operations is assessed using three, five-point Likert-type statements. The emphasis seems to be on some visible indicators that the airline is being managed competently such as with the efficiency of pre- and post-flight service.

Four, ten-point items are used to measure the level of emotional attachment a customer has with a certain company.