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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Six statements are used to measure the benefits above and beyond the core service performance that a consumer perceives receiving as a result of having a long-term relationship with a service provider. In particular, this scale is distinguished from two others also tapping into relational benefits (Social and Special Trestment) by focusing on the comfort or security one feels by having a relationship with a specific service firm.  This version of the scale used a six-point, Likert-type response format. Another version of the scale used the same items but with different directions (provided below) to measure the importance of this benefit. The anchors for that version were very unimportant and very important.

This Likert-type scale measures a person’s need for accuracy and the tendency to experience displeasure when mistakes are made.

This four-item, seven-point scale measures the extent to which a person is described by respondents as being organized and capable of doing something.  The scale was used by Price and Arnould (1999) for evaluating a hairstylist.

Three Likert-type items are used to measure a person's attitude towards a website with an emphasis on the confidence placed in the site.

The scale measures the perceived trustworthiness and expertise of the source of a message. It has been measured using six bi-polar adjectives and a seven-point response format with the exception of Gotlieb and Swan (1990) who used just five items.

This five-point, Likert-type scale has been used to measure a person's attitude about the benefits of television commercials in learning about and buying products. A ten-item version of the scale used by Alwitt and Prabhaker (1992) was called perceptions of the personal and social benefits or costs of TV advertising. A seven-item version was used by Alwitt and Prabhaker (1994).

A six-item, five-point, Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree of skepticism a person has with commercials shown on television, particularly with the motives of the advertiser.

Various seven-point bipolar adjectives are purported to measure a person's opinion about the practices and people characterizing the advertising industry. This is viewed by users of the scale to be different from measuring opinions about advertising as an institution.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a consumer believes that some specified organization can be trusted in the activities in which it engages to help protect the environment. The source in the study by Osterhus (1997) was a utility company.

A four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure a person's belief about the ability and/or desire of government to handle what one perceives to be important matters. This scale was referred to as political trust by Durand and Lambert (1985).