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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

values

The seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the value a person places on having a family and spending time with them.

A person’s attitude toward the appropriateness of purchasing American-made products versus those manufactured in other countries is measured using a seventeen-item, seven-point Likert-type scale. The scale was called CETSCALE (consumers' ethnocentric tendencies) by its creators, Shimp and Sharma 1987. The scale has been used in a variety of languages and countries. A ten-item version of the scale has been used in some studies and a revised version of the scale was used by Herche (1992).

The scale is composed of nine opposing phrases with a six-point response format that attempt to measure the degree of difficulty a person believes he/she would experience in making a particular choice. Since the items are stated hypothetically, the scale is not exactly a measure of post-purchase dissonance. The scale was called value conflict by Burroughs and Rindfleisch (2002) but the items seem to be general enough for use in a variety of situations where the researcher is concerned about how much conflict consumers imagine there would be in making a particular decision.

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure the value placed by a person on self-restraint and self-transcendence in order to minimize social disruption.

The value placed by a person on the welfare of those people with whom one is in frequent personal contact is measured using nine, nine-point statements.

Six statements with seven-point Likert-type response formats are used to measure the value-expressive functional base of a product-related attitude. This function has to do with a product facilitating one's expression of central values and self-identity to others.

Five, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on personal success with an emphasis on demonstration of competence in accordance with social standards so as to gain social approval.

The Likert-type scale is composed of three, seven-point statements measuring the respondent's attitude about the similarity of values and beliefs held in common by a company and its advertising agency with an emphasis on how they treat their customers and their employees. The scale was called goal conflict by Spake et al. (1999).

Three, six-point Likert-type items are used to assess a person's opinion of advertising in general as it relates to its portrayal of homosexuals.

The scale is composed of several phrases that appear to capture the degree to which a person places importance on values related directly to self such as self-respect, self-fulfillment, and a sense of accomplishment. Shim and Eastlick (1998) referred to this scale as self-actualizing.