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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


Thirteen, seven point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a person expresses beliefs that are consistent with honest behavior. The scale as a whole is not specific to any particular object or time but appears to describe one's general behavior. Wirtz and Kum (2004) referred to the scale as morality.

The seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the value a person places on having a family and spending time with them.

A person’s attitude toward the appropriateness of purchasing American-made products versus those manufactured in other countries is measured using a seventeen-item, seven-point Likert-type scale. The scale was called CETSCALE (consumers' ethnocentric tendencies) by its creators, Shimp and Sharma 1987. The scale has been used in a variety of languages and countries. A ten-item version of the scale has been used in some studies and a revised version of the scale was used by Herche (1992).

The scale is composed of nine opposing phrases with a six-point response format that attempt to measure the degree of difficulty a person believes he/she would experience in making a particular choice. Since the items are stated hypothetically, the scale is not exactly a measure of post-purchase dissonance. The scale was called value conflict by Burroughs and Rindfleisch (2002) but the items seem to be general enough for use in a variety of situations where the researcher is concerned about how much conflict consumers imagine there would be in making a particular decision.

Four, nine-point statements are used to measure the value placed by a person on self-restraint and self-transcendence in order to minimize social disruption.

The value placed by a person on the welfare of those people with whom one is in frequent personal contact is measured using nine, nine-point statements.

Six statements with seven-point Likert-type response formats are used to measure the value-expressive functional base of a product-related attitude. This function has to do with a product facilitating one's expression of central values and self-identity to others.

Five, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on personal success with an emphasis on demonstration of competence in accordance with social standards so as to gain social approval.

The Likert-type scale is composed of three, seven-point statements measuring the respondent's attitude about the similarity of values and beliefs held in common by a company and its advertising agency with an emphasis on how they treat their customers and their employees. The scale was called goal conflict by Spake et al. (1999).

Three, six-point Likert-type items are used to assess a person's opinion of advertising in general as it relates to its portrayal of homosexuals.