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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


 Want to know what is going on at Marketing Scales?  Read below about the newest books that have been published and other news of interest. 

New Brand-related Scales

Branding has been and continues to be a hot topic.  Its importance is not limited to practitioners; it is held in very high regard by marketing scholars as well.  In particular, when professors with specializations in consumer behavior study brand-related issues, one of their primary tools is the use of multi-item scales in their questionnaires.  Sometimes, existing scales are available and can be used.  In other cases, however, researchers feel the need to create new ones.  There are two primary reasons for this.  First, new scales are developed in order to measure something that has not been empirically studied before.  At other times, new scales are created because researchers believe “better” or different measures should be used to examine issues that have been studied previously. 

The new scales featured here now have been used to help address these brand-related questions:

Is there something beyond brand loyalty that more fully engages the emotions?

How much is the new version of a brand an improvement compared to the previous model?

• Does a partnering between a particular brand and a charity make sense to consumers?

• How much do consumers get bored buying the same brands that are otherwise good?

The detailed descriptions of these advanced measures now join hundreds of other scales in the Marketing Scales Database that have been used by world-class scholars in their studies of branding issues.

The Scales Database Keeps Growing!

There are now 4,300 scale reviews available here!  Although it will be a while before the next volume of the book series is published, new scales will be regularly added to the database.  At this point, the newest scales that have been added come from articles published in 2019.  The point is that if you have not found something appropriate for your research needs in past searches of the database, please search again as more scales are added. 

Marketing Scales Pet-Peeve #33

When scholars say they used a multi-item scale in their study, do they always describe the measure by providing its items, stating what construct the scale is supposed to measure, and defining the construct? Unfortunately, not.  See Scale-Related Pet-Peeve #33 at