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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

Avoidance of Large Food Businesses

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a consumer’s negative attitude regarding large food systems (producers and retailers) and the desire to avoid buying from them.