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Testimonial

I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

Stress (Environmental)

Five, seven-point Likert-type items measure the degree of anxiety and worry felt primarily because of the unpredictable events in one’s environment. (While this scale is not measuring stress due to the changing status of the natural environment per se, its perceived degradation could be one of the causes of overall stress along with other external stressors.)